Owed to Survivance

https://www.nts.live/shows/the-opera-show/episodes/the-opera-show-7th-july-2020

Owed to Survivance [[tran]script]

Hannah Catherine Jones

This text is designed to be listened to rather than read.

I provide this written text for reference.

[00:00:00]

Sun Ra Arkestra – Sun Song –  California – 1956[1]

Sun Ra – Music – Berkely Lectures – California – 1971

[00:00:21]

Hello and welcome to The Oweds wherever you are in the world. Today’s Owed is in debt to the concept of survivance[2].

Etymologically, ‘survivance’ is a portmanteau of ‘survival’ and/or ‘endurance’ and/or ‘resistance’ and/or ‘perseverance’ and for me it’s open to some interpretation, it also evokes the word ‘resilience’ in both sound and meaning.

[00:00:49]

Survivance is a term most associated with Native American studies to describe the contemporary indigenous experience; those who exist despite genocide(s) and displacements, which are ongoing; most recently and prominently Standing Rock, the sacred land of the Sioux Tribe who attracted worldwide support in protest of the Dakota Access Pipeline in 2017.

[00:01:15]

In a Guardian article on the ongoing displacement of the Sioux peoples of Standing Rock, Chief Arvol Looking Horse acknowledges the international support they have received: “Mni Woc’oni” — Water of Life — people all over the world are now beginning to understand that it is a living spirit: it can heal when you pray with it and die if you do not respect it.”[3]

[00:01:41]

Ulali Project – Wah Jhi Le Yihm – Smoke Signals- North Carolina – 2014

[00:05:36]

You heard the Ulali Project’s Wah Jhi Le Yihm recorded live at River People Festival, North Carolina, United States, in 2014. Ulali Project is a vocal acapella ensemble founded by Native American descendent, multi-instrumentalist, classically trained singer and activist, Pura Fe, who describes the track as ‘a song for healing and giving back to the water and letting the water wash and clean and the spirit rise –  those are some of the words in the song. Wahjheeleh Yihm… means I carry you with me… So…it means let the water carry you… It’s an ancestral song for the dead and the water as the sacred source!’[4]

[00:06:22] 

Wah Jhi Le Yihm, is Tutelo, an old pigeon dialect combining Old Siouan, Iroquois and coastal Algonquin pe­ople’s languages from what is now Virginia and the Carolinas. Music, specifically in this case song, becomes an essential vehicle for the survivance of this language.[5]

[00:06:42]

I didn’t encounter the term Survivance through Native American Studies, but at the Creating Interference conference at Westminster University back in June 2018 organised by Barby Asante and Amal Alag (shoutout to Barby and Amal).

[00:07:14]

Dr Karen Salt, founder of the first black studies course in Europe and professor at Nottingham University, used the term in relation to how diasporic students must survive institutional racism in addition to surviving their workload. Karen emphasised the urgency for the (black) academic community to establish decolonial examining bodies to assess minority students’ work.

[00:07:42]

To give some perspective, of the approximately 19,000 professors in the UK just 25 identify as black female or non-binary and 90 as black male[6]. This routinely renders these spaces inhospitable; from being mistaken as a cleaner (as Karen Salt was on her first day as a professor) to having to deal with insensitive and sometimes blatantly racist comments.

[00:08:12]

The negative effects and affects of being “the only one” materialise psychologically. Minority staff (and students alike) ) report being simultaneously hypervisible, due to the obvious difference in skin-tone whilst invisible in their opinions, observations, and complaints about racism being largely ignored by their white and white-passing[7] colleagues who cannot or will not attempt to perceive their Othered experience.[8]

[00:08:42]

Educational institutions in the UK (and Europe, and globally) were founded upon wealth gained from enslavement[9], which supported academic research into scientific racism: the foundation of white supremacy. These institutions are not built for us, and despite efforts to “diversify”, we still both look and feel out of place. Not being able to see yourself reflected in the institution means you’re not visually or culturally validated in the way white and white-passing Europeans are.

[00:09:19]

Rizvana Bradley gave an amazing talk, The Aesthetics of Thrown-ness at Goldsmiths College in 2015 in which she discussed a Glen Ligon etching, (Untitled 1992). Ligon’s landscape etching, depicts two panels of text, separated, like the pages of a book. The left panel contains the repeated and seemingly ink-splattered text: ‘I do not always feel coloured’, and the right reads: ‘I feel most colored when I’m thrown against a sharp white background’, utilising Zora Neale Hurston’s words: ‘I feel most colored when I’m thrown against a white background’[10] from her 1928 essay How It Feels to be Coloured Me.

[00:09:51]

Ligon’s addition of the word ‘sharp’ penetrates and re-enforces, the whiteness of the canvas, of the gallery walls, of those who run and predominantly inhabit the institution (and even the white wine consumed at gallery openings)[11] and furthermore, the psychological wounds inflicted on the minority individual by the same institution that consumes their work. Bradley also referenced the song you can hear playing now, Louis Armstrong’s performance of Fats Waller’s Black and Blue from 1929, a lament evoking the physical (and mental) beatings black people suffered historically and still suffer today, in addition to signifying Armstrong’s skin tone and musical profession.

[00:10:38]

Louis Armstrong – Black and Blue – Vocal Classics – Live in Berlin – 1965

[00:13:59]

Alton Ellis – Black Man’s Word – Jamaica – 1974

[00:16:29]

Echoing the preceding Louis Armstrong track, you are hearing the sublime wails of Alton Ellis with Black Man’s Word, the Supersonics version from 1974. To be black and blue is to endure sorrow of mind and beatings to the body. It requires processes of healing. In Ellis’ case, his melodic cry occupies a space somewhere between pleasure and pain, joy and sorrow, containing both the wound and the antidote: pain, and a transformative expression of this pain.

[00:17:07]

Uniting non-white individuals globally is their historical and contemporary experiences of physical and psychological displacement by white Europeans. In Jamaican-born Ellis’ case, a speculative longing for a homeland to which he has never been and will never know the precise location of, somewhere in West Africa.

[00:17:30]

Even as a member of the Afro-Caribbean Diaspora myself, it took me a long time to realise that the West Indies are an entirely European construct and not just a series of paradises for “exotic” holidays. This is particularly potently represented by perhaps the signifier of paradise; palm trees, which were planted to line the plantation owners’ driveways, and the particular layouts of the trees functioned as maps for the enslaved to navigate their routes back to their masters’ house from the fields. The oxymoronic existence of palm trees resonates within Ellis’ bittersweet expression; chord sequences in a major key that are constantly pulling toward a minor resolution that is denied by the perpetual motion of the steady syncopation characteristic of reggae.

[00:18:02]

Economic suppression post-abolition forced many immigrants, like my grandmother, to seek a better life in England. She sent for her children from Barbados, one by one, including my father. As we approach the 70th anniversary of Windrush, some Caribbean nationals living in the UK between 1948 and 1971 will not be granted citizenship in a denial of the rights promised to them.[12]

[00:18:30]

This denial of citizenship echoes an ongoing denial of humanity; inequity takes the form of exclusion of non-white individuals from the most powerful institutions.[13] bell hooks articulates the intersecting systems as the white supremacist imperialist capitalist patriarchy[14]. These interlocking systems reinforce one another rendering it infinitely complex to tackle any one issue, including so-called “diversity” and “inclusion” within institutions.

[00:19:05]

In 2018 we are still bombarded with the motif: the first black person to, for example, win the Turner Prize (shoutout to Lubaina Himid), due to the double jeopardy[15] of being both black and female within the white supremacist imperialist capitalist patriarchy. Furthermore, black identifying trans and non-binary individuals and anyone with a disability must face further barriers that I, and many privileged others, will never have to endure.

[00:19:39]

The first black female opera singer to perform leading roles at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York, Leontyne Price’s final performance was a multi-layered story bridging myth and reality. In 1985 Price took to the stage for the last time as Verdi’s Aida, an enslaved Ethiopian princess who can never again return home. The parallels between the character she played, her own ancestral history as an African American, and the performative act of bidding farewell to her home upon the stage reverberate profoundly. Price’s characteristicly wide vibrato and her ability to convey extremem emotioj through extreme control of her voice in the moment, in this case the final moment, of her career intoxicates with the tensions of these two opposing concepts. The only sign of emotion beyond that of the music occurs on the final note she sings, despite all evidence to the contrary, Price’s fragility almost reveals itself in an oscillation that threatens to break the narrow boundaries of the pitch of vibrato, but somehow she remains in control until the last moment before the urgent and thunderous applause erupts. This epic performance ended with 25-minutes of applause and it was actually broadcast live from the Met, can you imagine being present for this performance[16].

[00:20:28]

Leontyne Price – O Patria Mia – Verdi’s Aida (1871) – New York – 1985

[00:27:02]

Wassis Diop – Bintou Were – A Sahel Opera – Mali – 2007

[00:30:14]

Following Leontyne Price’s inimitable final performance as Nubian Aida singing ‘O Patria Mia’ which translates from Italian as ‘Oh my beloved homeland, I will never see you again’[17], we travelled to Mali for an excerpt of Wasis Diop’s 2008 contemporary opera Bintou Were. I came to this incredible work through Manthia Diawara’s 2017 film An Opera of the World described by the ICA, who screened it in November 2017, as:  

[00:30:47]

‘a pioneering work telling the story of migration from West Africa to Europe by combining traditional Malian music with the structure of the Western art form. Weaving together this performance with classical works and footage from the current migrant crisis, the film invites meditations on the role of music in experiences and representations of contemporary migration.’[18]

The affective results of such a combination reveal the profound similarities between what is considered to be Western and what is considered to be under the hugely problematic category “world music”(particularly perpetuated by WOMAD festival); call and response form is inherent to African music in all 54 countries, it’s inherent in “classical” music, it is simply an imitative sonic form that invites collectivity, performativity, polyphony.

[00:31:12]

Both Diop’s opera and Diawara’s film pose the question: where did operatic form originate? There are theories that the Western tradition of opera was significantly influenced by colonisers witnessing, and potentially even participating in, pre-colonial African performative rituals which incorporated song, dance, costume and community.

[00:31:39]

Descriptions of these experiences then disseminated amongst the upper classes in Europe and inspired the imaginations of Western composers.[19] There exists very little documentation due to the intangible nature of oral traditions and the overwhelming theft and reframing, and destruction of indigenous artworks of all mediums by the European colonisers[20].

[00:32:04]

From the banning of drumming in plantations, the work song, or negro spiritual evolved, cast-off instruments from the North American military, post-World War I, birthed jazz, and from the apartheid and disempowerment of native South Africans, the Toyi Toyi was conceived. Improvisation as a response to disempowerment is an intrinsic survivance methodology of blackness.

[00:32:32]

The Toyi Toyi is high-intensity dance which essentially employs the body as a percussive instrument, the performer jumps with high knees from one foot to the other, whilst simultaneously singing or chanting the communal call and response. And although the Toyi Toyi is generally associated with South Africa, it was actually invented by Zimbabwean freedom fighters to maintain both morale and fitness whilst fighting the Rhodesian army and was introduced into South Africa via the border by guerrilla training camps[21].

[00:33:07]

By the 1980’s civilians were utilising Toyi Toyi in protest – a sonic representation of survivance, a song-dance that itself functions as a weapon of sound in moments of civil disobedience, both historical and contemporary.

[00:33:25]

Chicago Children’s Choir – Toyi Toyi – Open Up Your Heart – Chicago – 2006

[00:35:35]

Standing the test of time, that was the Chicago Children’s choir performing the Toyi Toyi in a recording from 2006. The fight to be recognised by the institution (governments, educational institutions and so on), as a non-European is ongoing. To enter into the academic canon, to gain and maintain a place in the discourse of any given field is often met with resistance from those in power.

[00:35:54]

Despite producing an extensive body of compositional and performative work, including pioneering combinations of minimalism and post-minimalism with pop music and operating within the same artistic circles as John Cage and Arthur Russel, Julius Eastman died penniless, homeless and alone in Tompkins Square Park, New York, in 1990.[22]

[00:36:19]

Since the London Contemporary Music Festival curated a 3-day event: In Search of Julius Eastman, in December 2016, there has been an influx of interest, including The Otolith Group’s 2017 film The Third Part of the Third Measure and I was fortunate enough to view the work at its premiere at Goldsmiths College at the Images of Tomorrow Anti-Conference (shoutout to Ama and Xana), and at Corsica Studios Hyperdub event (shoutout to Shannen), so finally, this artist is entering the cannon.

[00:36:56]

Julius Eastman – Stay on It – Unjust Malaise – New York – 1973

[00:37:21]

Julius Eastman – Evil N***** – Unjust Malaise – New York 1979

­­

[00:38:15]

You are hearing a combination of Eastman’s Evil N***** from 1979 and Stay On It from 1973, an intentional blending to remind us of the very real existence of systemic and institutional racism, and the importance of perseverance, of keeping on it, of survivance, that comes with self-expression. Eastman, Price, Armstrong, Ellis, have all endured suffering and throughout this produced joyful art, paving the way for us to have the privilege to critique our current circumstances as black diasporic subjects in 2018.

[00:39:07]

Despite this, the fight to gain recognition as a human being, is historically linked to the production of art. Philliss Wheatley was forced to recite her poetry in a Boston courtroom in 1772,[23] essentially to prove her humanity through her art, in response to the general disbelief an enslaved woman was capable of producing excellent prose.

[00:39:32]

Today we witness the enduring echoes of black inhumanity, most viciously through the regular contemporary slaughter of black men and women at the hands of police particularly in the United States but also here in the UK. Edson da Costa, Darren Cumberbatch, Shane Bryant and Rashan Charles all died between June and July this year after police contact.[24] Sarah Reed suffered a number of systemic failures before dying in a police cell in 2016[25].

[00:40:06]

It is essential to remember the names of these victims, and our siblings in the United States where many more die due to the legality of firearms: Eric Garner, Tamir Rice, Michael Brown, Freddie Gray, Trayvon Martin, Alton Sterling and so many more unarmed were murdered by police.[26]

[00:40:32]

These deaths prove that white people’s comfort is valued above black people’s lives and that there continues to be no, or very little, consequence for black death. White artists repeatedly make, at best clumsy, and at worst purposeful, attempts to profit from black pain.[27] Perhaps the most explicit example is acquitted police officer George Zimmerman auctioning the firearm used to murder Trayvon Martin for 250,000 dollars[28]. Legally.

[00:41:06]

Protests by black-British collective BBZ aimed at the 2018 Turner Prize nominated film Autoportrait by white-passing artist Luke Willis Thompson which depicts Diamond Reynolds, partner of Philando Castile[29] emphasises the argument that BLACK PAIN IS NOT FOR PROFIT.[30] Who has “the right” to utilise painful narratives in their work? The conversation around white supremacy and black injustice cannot move forward without pain, however, white and white-passing artists need to realise their privilege and not claim sensitive narratives for their own personal, professional, and financial gain.

[00:41:43]

Each time we hear of another police brutality death, it causes us almost physical pain. We have to acknowledge it, prepare ourselves for the biases we face and unite globally in order to overcome the daily threats to our peace of mind and our lives. Those of us with more privilege, for example having lighter skin, having higher education degrees, we must use our platforms to educate white people and each other through fostering diasporic communities, as long as we have support systems in place and the energy required to do so.

[00:42:22]

Working within the (educational) institution that upholds the systemic hierarchies that result in repetitive cases of injustice requires practices of self-care through rest, exercise, exposure to sunlight, love, perhaps therapy, perhaps medication, and certainly meditation, in various forms.

[00:42:47]

Evan Ifekoya – Lotus Sutra – London – 2018

[00:44:28]

Evan Ifekoya, the award-winning artist, lecturer in art and art history at Goldsmiths and my dear friend and collaborator, centres their practice around sound, listening (as a form of resistance) and through healing through sound and music: “It plays a role in my domestic life. It’s part of my self-care routines, my rituals, meditations and other daily habits.”[31] (they say).

[00:44:56]

This is Evan Ifekoya’s Lotus Sutra, a meditation they produced in 2017 that featured in their solo show at Gasworks this year – Ritual Without Belief (‘without’ is struckthrough) – a 6-hour sound work played through a soundsystem they built themselves displayed in a stunning installation of wave imagery, balloons and an acoustic foam mattress (shoutout to the Black Obsidian Sound System).

[00:45:25]

Evan and I’s collaboration series H.E.L.P – Healing Exercises for Limitless Potential[32] – focus on solutions to the problems of feeling fragmented, out of place and struggling with mental health within the so-called art world. Practices of meditation frequently utilise the voice, the breath, in order to stay present in the moment, a powerful antidote for anyone navigating the anxiety-inducing techno-world of 2018 and furthermore, a method of productively coping with moments of threat to our physical and mental well-being.

[00:46:03]

The pressure of being a BAME in an institution triggers impostor syndrome[33] which often can result in overworking as a coping mechanism with serious consequences to physiological health, yet, the temptation to prove one’s worth, one’s humanity, through excessive labour to be considered successful by the standards of white supremacy is overwhelming. And I worry about the potentially dangerous implications of #blackgirlmagic[34], because we’re not superhuman, we are not subhuman; we are human.

[00:46:40]

Ituri Tribes – Alima Song – The Golden Voyager Record – 1977  

[00:48:31]

Mahi Musicians of Benin – Cengunmé – The Golden Voyager Record – 1977  

[00:48:32]

You have heard the Alima song from the tribes of the Ituri forest in DR Congo and the track playing now is Cengunmé by the Mahi musicians of Benin. Both these selections appear on an entirely unique record, the Golden Voyager Record which is currently the farthest away human-produced object from Earth. Launched into space by NASA in 1977, the Golden Voyager is currently over 13,387,992,285 miles away from Earth and as I speak is travelling farther still.[35]

[00:49:16]

The Golden Record contains on it recordings of the sounds of the earth; nature, music, greetings in different languages and some images, in the hope that if it is discovered by Other intelligent life-forms, they will be able to gain a sense of our humanity[36].

[00:49:36]

Kesarbai Kerkar – Jaat Kahan Ho – The Golden Voyager Record – 1977  

[00:50:57]

Now you are hearing Kesarbai Kerkar from the village of Keri in North Goa with Jaat Kahan Ho, the lyrics of which mean: “where do you go alone, girl, do your feet not know?”[37] Although gendered, that’s an appropriate question for its host The Voyager, which signifies an astronomical performance of faith in an Other distant, present audience. It presupposes that there are other life forms out there, and also, that they have a record player.

[00:51:27]

Gil Scott Heron – Whitey on the Moon – The Revolution Will Not Be Televised – 1970

[00:53:24]

Who did the space race benefit and who did it further oppress? Gil Scott Heron’s Whitey on the Moon from 1970 calls into question the “we” of mankind and puts into perspective social inequality and remains painfully relevant today.

[00:53:44]

Despite no explicit official documentation of interactions with extra-terrestrial Others, beings from other planets have certainly existed on Earth. Sun Ra first appeared in Birmingham Alabama in 1914, a self-actualised Sun God, intergalactic light source, an ultralight beam, non-human sent to Earth from Saturn to spread joy through music, both live and recorded, distributed through El Saturn Records.

[00:54:15]

Sun Ra – Night Music – New York – 1989

[00:59:40]

Looking backwards, into ancient Egypt and other lost black histories, there is fascination with what is present but an overwhelming awareness of what is absent. There is a monumental lack of documentation before enslavement, and the truth is we will almost certainly never know detailed histories of ancient practices with anywhere near as much detail (and conditioned reverence) as we have for European histories. The next artwork you will hear represents the lesson we must put into practice daily – to dwell in the joy of what history we have.

[01:00:19]

Jessye Norman – Lascia Ch’io Pianga from Handel’s Rinaldo (1711)/Almina (1707) – Hohenems, Austria – 1988

[01:04:32]

A composition by owner of the enslaved, George Frederich Handel[38], sung by a descendant of the enslaved, the great African American soprano, Jessye Norman. Lascia Ch’io Pianga translates as ‘take the rose and leave the thorn,

do not go searching for pain’.[39] A stunning aria, activating the potential joy of the relation between the historical oppressors and the oppressed.

[01:05:00]

Difficult conversations around race, class, gender, identity are happening and must happen. We must become more comfortable with discomfort and the labour must be shared. We can’t continue to ignore the painful histories of enslavement – we must acknowledge them, sit with the discomfort, and move forward. Take from the past what is useful to us – live as Sankofa, the Ghanaian Adinkra symbol depicting a bird with its feet facing forwards and its head looking backwards, Sankofa literally means ‘go back and fetch it’.[40]

[01:05:38]

Despite the sharp thorns of history, the sharp white background against which we are thrown, we must find ways to repair ourselves through time, space, sound, vibrations and listening to the choir of Others who have prospered in the face of adversity, accepting that there will be suffering for without suffering we cannot perceive joy.

[01:06:00]

Blackness and creation will always contain an element of suffering – its intrinsic to the black experience – it’s what we do with that suffering; rather than to take on the burden and responsibility of claiming to or attempting to shift things on a systemic level individually, we have to focus on methods for survivance. The journey has no beginning and no end and the battles we face will leave us bruised, wounded and scarred, but we can heal. We have to face the music, to play our part. No more, no less. Thank you for listening and see you next time.

[01:06:46]

Alice Coltrane Turiyasangitananda – Andromeda’s Suffering – Reflection on Creation and Space (A Five Year Review) – Los Angeles – 1972.


[1] Track-listing follows the format: artist – track – album (if applicable) – location – year.

[2] Algerian-born French philosopher Derrida defines Survivance in the Beast and the Sovereign as ‘a sense of survival that is neither life nor death pure and simple, a sense that is not thinkable on the basis of the opposition between life and death.’ – M. Lisse, M. Mallet, and G. Michaud, ed., G. Bennington, trans., The Seminars of Jacques Derrida, The University of Chicago Press Ltd., London, 2011, p.130.

[3] Chief Arvol Looking Horse, ‘Standing Rock is everywhere: one year later’, The Guardian [website], https://www.theguardian.com/environment/climate-consensus-97-per-cent/2018/feb/22/standing-rock-is-everywhere-one-year-later,  accessed 17th October 2018.

[4] P. Fe, ‘Ulali Project at River People Festival 2014’, Democratic Underground [website], https://upload.democraticunderground.com/1017399926, accessed 8th October 2018.

[5] M. Michelle, ‘Ulali – healing – loss – water’, Projects for English Learners, [website], https://projects4englishlearners.wordpress.com/2012/12/06/ulali-healing-loss-water/, accessed 8th October 2018.

[6] R. Adams, ‘UK universities making slow progress on equality, data shows’, The Guardian,

[website]

,https://www.theguardian.com/education/2018/sep/07/uk-university-professors-black-minority-ethnic, accessed 10th October 2018.

[7] ‘White-passing’ is a problematic term that perpetuates colonial categorisationsl however I use it in absence of another term and with the intention of constructing a new term in the imminent future.

[8] V. Lander, N. Santoro, ‘Invisible and hypervisible academics: the experiences of Black and minority ethnic teacher educators’, Taylor & Francis Online, [website],https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/13562517.2017.1332029?needAccess=true, accessed 12th October 2018.

[9] C. Hall, ‘Britain’s massive debt to slavery’, The Guardian, [website], https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/feb/27/britain-debt-slavery-made-public, accessed 19th October 2018.

[10] A. Walker, ed., A Zora Neale Hurston Reader: I Love Myself When I Am Laughing And Then Again When I Am Looking Mean And Impressive, The Feminist Press at The City University of New York, New York,1979, p.154.

[11] J. V. Joyce, I was tired of white walls, white wine, and white people, unpublished illustration, 2017.

[12] BBC, ‘Windrush victims detained ‘unlawfully’ by Home Office’, BBC, [website], https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-44651105, accessed October 7th 2018.

[13] R. Adams,  ‘British universities employ no black academics in top roles, figures show’, The Guardian, [website], https://www.theguardian.com/education/2017/jan/19/british-universities-employ-no-black-academics-in-top-roles-figures-show, accessed 12th October 2018.

[14] b. hooks, Writing Beyond Race: Living Theory and Practice, Routledge, New York, 2013, p.4.

[15] F.M. Beale, ‘Double Jeopardy: To Be Black and Female’, Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism, Volume 8, Number 2, 2008, https://muse.jhu.edu/article/242234/pdf, accessed 15th October 2018.

[16] D. Henahan, ‘OPERA: LEONTYNE PRICE’S FINAL STAGE PERFORMANCE’, The New York Times,

[website]

, accessed 17th October, 2018.https://www.nytimes.com/1985/01/04/arts/opera-leontyne-price-s-final-stage-performance.html, accessed 17th October 2018.

[17] R. Burnstein, ‘O Patria Mia’, The Aria Database, [website], http://www.aria-database.com/search.php?individualAria=6, accessed 17th October, 2018.

[18] ICA, ‘Manthia Diawara’s An Opera of the World + Responses and Discussion’, ICA, [website], https://archive.ica.art/whats-on/manthia-diawaras-opera-world-responses-and-discussion, accessed 17th October 2018.

[19] L. Losambe, D. Sarinjeive, ed., Pre-colonial and Post-colonial Drama and Theatre in Africa, New Africa Books (Pty) Ltd., South Africa p.viii.

[20] J. Jones, ‘The art world’s shame: why Britain must give its colonial booty back’, The Guardian, [website], https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/jonathanjonesblog/2014/nov/04/art-worlds-shame-parthenon-elgin-marbles-british-museums, accessed 20th October 2018.

[21] Amandla! A Revolution in Four Part Harmony [film], dir. L. Hirsch, ATO Pictures, 2003.

[22] H. Als, ‘The Genius and the Tragedy of Julius Eastman’, The New Yorker,

[website]

, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2018/01/22/the-genius-and-the-tragedy-of-julius-eastman, accessed 17th October 2018.

[23] V. Carretta, ed., Complete Writings: Philiis Wheatley, Penguin Books, London, 2001, p.ix.

[24] F. Newton, ‘Police custody deaths: the stories behind the statistics’, The Guardian, [website],

https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/jul/25/deaths-in-police-custody-the-stories-behind-the-statistics, accessed 17th October 2018.

[25] L. Jasper, ‘Those who failed Sarah Reed must be held to account’, The Guardian, [website], Jasper, L. ‘Those who failed Sarah Reed must be held to account’, The Guardian, [website],  https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/jul/24/sarah-reed-death-avoidable-mental-illness-holloway-prison, accessed 17th October 2018.

[26] W. Lowrey,  ‘Black Lives Matter: birth of a movement’ The Guardian, [website], https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jan/17/black-lives-matter-birth-of-a-movement, accessed 17th October 2018.   

[27] Varaidzo, ‘Black death spectacle: when cameras switched sides’, gal-dem, [website], http://gal-dem.com/black-death-spectacle-cameras-switched-sides/, accessed 17th October 2018.

[28] R. Luscombe, ‘George Zimmerman sells gun used to kill Trayvon Martin on auction site’, The Guardian, [website],

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/may/18/george-zimmerman-sells-gun-trayvon-martin, accessed 12th October 2018.

[29] A. Armstrong,‘Black Pain Is Not for Profit’: Collective Protests Luke Willis Thompson’s Turner Prize Nomination at Tate Britain’, ARTNEWS, [website], http://www.artnews.com/2018/09/25/black-pain-not-profit-collective-protests-luke-willis-thompsons-turner-prize-nomination-tate-britain/, accessed 7th October 2018.

[30] BBZ protesters wore t-shirts with this phrase as part of their protest http://www.artnews.com/2018/09/25/black-pain-not-profit-collective-protests-luke-willis-thompsons-turner-prize-nomination-tate-britain/

[31] E. Ifekoya, ‘Life in Sound: Evan Ifekoya’, Frieze,

[website]

, https://frieze.com/article/life-sound-evan-ifekoya, accessed 25th September 2018.

[32] Gasworks, ‘H.E.L.P – Healing Exercises for Limitless Potential’, Gasworks, [website], https://www.gasworks.org.uk/events/healing-exercises-for-limitless-potential-help-2018-07-07/, accessed 17th October 2018.

[33] D. X. Henderson, ‘Why Do Students of Color Feel Like an Imposter in School?’, Psychology Today, [website], https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/blog/the-trajectory-race/201704/why-do-students-color-feel-imposter-in-school, accessed 12th October 2018.

[34] C. Brinkhurst-Cuff, ‘How #BlackGirlMagic became a rallying cry for women of colour’, The Guardian, [website],  https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/womens-blog/2016/apr/11/how-blackgirlmagic-became-a-rallying-cry-for-women-of-colour, accessed 12th October 2018.

[35] NASA (Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Voyager), ‘NASA Voyager 2 Could Be Nearing interstellar Space’ NASA [website], https://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/, accessed 17th October 2018.

[36] NASA (Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Voyager), ‘NASA Voyager 2 Could Be Nearing interstellar Space’ NASA [website], https://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/golden-record/, accessed 17th October 2018.

[37] Indian Times ‘Did you know an Indian song was played on NASA Voyager?’, Indian Times, [website], https://www.indiatimes.com/news/did-you-know-an-indian-song-was-played-on-nasa-s-voyager-1-during-its-journey-to-saturn-in-1977_-272927.html, accessed 7th October 2018.

[38] C. Nwanoku, ‘In Search of the Black Mozart’, BBC Radio 4, [website], https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b05wdsnl, accessed 17th October 2018.

[39] A. Hall, ‘Lascia Ch’io Pianga’, The Aria Database, [website], http://www.aria-database.com/search.php?sid=fcb05f71adcce8a12ed0ce6810131e8a&X=1&Language&sort=Language&startResults=0, accessed 17th October 2018.

[40] Brooklyn Museum, ‘Gold Weight in Form of Sankofa Bird’, Brooklyn Museum, [website], https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/57691, accessed 17th October 2018.